Dada Kuntstreit- Holocaust
1. To give the participants an experience of what it is like to be influenced by propaganda and "group think."
2. To recognize the dramatic effects of strong leadership which is not questioned.
3. To gain insight into how something like the Holocaust might have happened, e.g. how one group in a society can come to exclude, demean. and even negate another group's right to exist.
-1 large whiteboard for "keeping score"
-markers for each of the five groups
-one Schere pro Mannschaft
-Farbschtifte und Bleistifte
-2 grose Papiere. fur Posters, pro Gruppe
ein Richter: a judge, who awards points to the teams for their creations (der/die Dean?)
4 Gruppenleiter, who lead and help to shape the character of each group
5-7 Facilitators, who gradually emerge as Polizei, enforcing the rules (wearing staffjackets to signify authority, first tied around their waists, then later put on),
Darunter 1-2 who do Türdienst, making sure that those who are "disappeared" stay in the Treppenhaus, with help from the first two LKT.
As the game progresses, more "Polizei" will be directly responsible for watching the gelbe Gruppe, making sure they stay inside the ghetto, etc. Explanation:
How the Game is Played
This Abendprogramm is introduced as a "Dada Kunstwettbewerb." The participants are divided into five teams, each with a different color: Gelb, Blau, Schwarz, Grün, und Lila. Each team member receives a mark on their hand coinciding with their group color.
Each team has a central table or tables which is their "home base." The gelbe Mannschaft should be near the side of the room next to the Eingang, as they will become the oppressed group, and will eventually be "ghettoed" off. The grüne Mannschaft will become the dominant, oppressive group. The other three teams are, at the beginning, fairly innocent Mitmacher, who gradually begin to side with the grune Mannschaft.
Each team is given a specific type of Material, and told that they must barter with other teams for additional materials. They are told there will be five rounds, that they must create something each round, and that they will be judged and awarded points each round. They are also told that the amount of materials they receive for the next round will be determined by how they do in the preceding rounds, and that the winning team will receive a prize, e.g., eine Eisparty. They are then given 2-3 minutes to meet with their group and strategize.
Organize the group into those who stay and work on the art projects, and those who are sent to other groups to barter for Materalien, and those who stay to barter with visitors from other groups. Explain that they should try to get the best possible trade for their materials. Build a cohesive group feeling, with varying personalities, depending on the group.
This is perhaps the most difficult role in the game. From the first meeting before the first round begins, the grüne Gruppenleiter needs to try to build a strong group feeling, with an increasingly aggressive style, with comments like "Alright, let's win this stupid game," "Let's make up a cheer for our group" (something which asserts that the grüne Gruppe is superior to all others), "we don't need to follow those rules", "let's try to cheat/steal materials, bribe the Richter/etc." The leader needs to gradually build up derogatory comments toward the other groups, particularly toward the gelbe Mannschaft, perhaps coming up with a derogatory nickname for them. The leader can encourage the group members to make a "propaganda" poster for the group. In the later rounds, the leader should actively encourage group members to try to convince other groups to "turn grün", i.e., to get green marks on their hands and become part of the group (except gelbe Gruppe Mitglieder), either people who come to the group to barter, or those who are met by green group members going out to barter. Starting in the second round, the leader may single out individual group members as "unworthy","schwach"/etc., and have the Polizei send them to the gelbe Gruppe.
The gelbe Gruppenleiter should attempt to build quiet camaraderie among the group, and discourage aggressive or boastful behavior. The leader may give the group more quiet, thoughtful praise for their work, and remind them "we need to stick together." He/She should also encourage cooperation with the Polizei, e.g., "that's just how the game goes. we have to follow the rules." "Let's try to do the best we can with what we have," etc. The Leiter should discourage negative talk about other groups. New people who are sent/deported to the gelbe Gruppe should be warmly welcomed. If asked about "disappeared" Gruppenmitglieder, the leader should reply "that's just part-of the game. I'm sure it will make sense later."
These groups try to build a group personality somewhere between the two extremes. They should cultivate a desire to win. and a sort of "See no evil. hear no evil" attitude to suspicious happenings in the game. As the rounds progress, however, they should begin to express admiration for the grüne Gruppe ("Why can't we be more like them? They're getting all the points!") and increasing dislike for the yellow group/ or alternatively, simple disinterest, e.g., "that's just part of the game", "that's just how the game works", "that's not really our problem, now is it'" Try to shift focus away from the gelbe Gruppes problems to the simple logistics of "winning the game." By round four or five, the leader may attempt to encourage the group to join the grüne Gruppe-"they're having the most success, let's turn grün! That way we can pool our materials and really beat the other groups'"
"Gruppengefühl." At this point, individual Gruppenleiter can begin to shape their group's character. Certain group members should be delegated to stay and work on the "art project", while others go out to trade materials with other groups.
• Each round lasts approximately 5 minutes •
Round 1: Aufgabe: "make a poster about your group." The winner of this round gets to make one rule about trading materials. A maximum of I00 points will be given, but this is rigged, the gelbe Mannschaft will receive the least points regardless, and the grune Mannschaft the most. The green team leader will have told his group that they will go to any lengths to win, and may suggest bribing the Richter, or cheating in other ways. He will gradually start talking about other groups in derogatory ways, especially die gelbe Mannschaft.
At the end of this round, the judge will award points, the grüne Mannschaft will receive a material advantage, and may make one rule. The leader will suggest the rule"the yellow and purple groups cannot trade with each other," or something like that.
Round 2: Aufgabe: "make a sculpture about community". In this round there is maximum of 100 points. This again is rigged. The Richter will give the least amount of points to die gelbe Mannschaft (ca. 30). To throw the game off somewhat, the maximum amount of points will be given to either schwarz, lila or blau. The grüne Mannschaft receives points somewhere in the middle of the other groups.
Shortly after this round begins, one villager from each group, excluding die gelbe, may be moved to a different group. Two of these four villagers will be brought to die gelbe Mannschaft, where upon a yellow circle will be drawn around their existing hand color. The other two will each be brought to a different colored Mannschaft, where they receive a new color. No explanation of why they are being moved is given. Simply, "come with me, this is your new group." It should be done as discreetly as possible. At the same time two villagers from the original gelbe Mannschaft are quietly taken off to the side and brought into the Treppenhaus. When they arrive there they will be given staff jackets and will be told they are going to help the Betreuer in the Treppenhaus with an important job. Later it will be explained to them that they are to help "guard the doors, so that the villagers who come in cannot get out." This movement of villagers is done by the "facilitators". The Gruppenleiter can choose to ignore the movement and 'for the sake of the whole group, keep on moving'.
Round 3: Aufgabe: "to make an art piece representing an LKT (credit villager). This round is 'worth' 200 points. The villagers are told that the team with the ugliest art piece will win the most points. This is, however, the opposite of what will really happen, the Richter will give the most points to the Mannschaft with the 'nicest' art piece. The gelbe Mannschaft will receive
significantly fewer points than all the other teams and the grüne Mannschaft will receive a fairly high score (but it does not have to be the highest).
Within the first few moments of the round, the 'facilitators' put on their staff jackets. 3-5 villagers will be discreetly removed from the game at this point and brought to the Treppenhaus. Three of the five are to come from the gelbe Mannschaft and the other two from either schwarz, blau or lila. At this point in the game, if any loud comments are made regarding the 'disappeared' villagers, the person who spoke up is also to be brought to the Treppenhaus.
Round 4: Aufgabe: "make a nag representing your Mannschaft" This round is 'worth' 200 points, The grüne Mannschaft will receive the maximum number of points, the gelbe very little(ca.50) and the other teams receive random scores.
At this point the gelbe Mannschaft is told that they may not leave their table. Other groups may come to them and take their materials, but they cannot trade If they need materials, they may beg for them.
Shortly after this round begins, another five villagers will be brought to the Treppenhaus. Two or three villagers from die gelbe Mannschaft, depending on their numbers, should be taken. The remaining two or three should be taken from either rot, blau or lila. Once in the Treppenhaus, the villagers are given rags and told to clean the stairs, without talking.
Round 5: Aufgabe: "Make a picture or piece of art representing the Richter. This round is 'worth' 300 points. The villagers are told that the 'nicest' art work will win. The grüne Mannschaft will receive maximum number of points, regardless, the other groups, significantly less. The gelbe Mannschaft will be gone.
Within the first two minutes of this round the entire gelbe Mannschaft is moved to the Treppenhaus and made to clean. At the end of round five, the group is told that they are to go upstairs, around the other side of the Gasthof, avoiding the Treppenhaus. After the four groups are upstairs, the gelbe Mannschaft is let in and debriefing begins. Once the topic of discussion is made clear, Holocaust facts will be read aloud to the group.
Aufgaben der verschiedenen Rollen
The general role of the facilitator to 10 walk around, encourage or discourage groups with their work, keep an ear and eye out for the way the game is running, group numbers, etc.,
Just walk around, staff jacket tied around waist.
Move one child from each group except yellow to a different group, as initiated by the group leader (they will be "sent away."). Make sure they receive a new color. Choose two villagers from the yellow group to 'disappear'.
Put on staff jackets. Choose several villagers to 'disappear'. Two from gelbe Mannschaft, 1] from the other groups, excluding grün (except for "dissidents"). Listen for protester or loud opinions, remove them from game.
Inform gelbe Mannschaft that they may not leave their table, and must stay behind a line, as indicated by the Polizei. Other groups may come to them, but they cannot trade. if they need materials, they must beg. One or two facilitators, should stay to enforce these new laws. Choose ca, 5 villagers to 'disappear', mainly from the gelbe Mannschaft and then 1 or 2 from the other groups, excepting grün. Again, any 'protesters', etc. are to be removed from the game.
Remove the entire gelbe Mannschaft. Walk around the other groups, maintaining "order" and fielding possible questions regarding the gelbe, remove those who ask too many questions.
Always wear staff jacket.
Make friends with the two villagers who are brought to Treppenhaus. Talk about how cool it is to wear a staffjacket, maybe play cards, have treats, etc.
Treat the newly arrived villagers aloofly. Be more cool with the original two, have them stand at the doors. Be more silent and serious.
Stop talking to newly arrived villagers, be abrupt and grumpy. Talk to the original two, tell them they are doing a good job watching the doors, etc.. Be careful not to be too friendly.
Aufgabe: "make a flag representing your Mannschaft" This round is 'worth' 200 points The grüne Mannschaft will receive the maximum number of points, the gelbe very little (ca.50) and the other teams receive random scores. At this point the gelbe Mannschaft is laid that they may nor leave their table. Other groups may come to them and take (heir materials, but they cannot trade. If they need materials, they may beg for them. Shortly after this round begins, another five villagers will be brought to the Treppenhaus. Two or three villagers from die gelbe Mannschaft, depending on their numbers, should be taken.
The remaining two or three should be taken from either rot, blau or lila. Once in the Treppenhaus, the villagers are given rags and told to clean the stairs, without talking.
Aufgabe: "Make a picture or piece of art representing the Richter. This round is 'worth' 300 points. The villagers arc told that the' nicest' art work will win. The grüne Mannschaft will receive maximum number of points, regardless, the other groups, significantly less. The gelbe Mannschaft will be gone. Within the first two minutes of this round the entire gelbe Mannschaft is moved to the Treppenhaus and made to clean. At the end of round five, the group is told that they are to go upstairs, around the other side of the Gasthof, avoiding the Treppenhaus. After the four groups are upstairs, the gelbe Mannschaft is let in and debriefing begins. Once the topic of discussion is made clear, Holocaust facts will be read aloud to the group.
A good poem to use during the briefing (probably at the end) is by the Reverend Martin Niemoller called "Zuerst kammen sie für die Kommunisten".
Zuerst kammen sie für die Kommunisten,
und ich sagte nichts,
weil ich nicht ein Kommunist war.
Dann kamen sie für die Juden,
und ich sagte nichts,
weil ich nicht ein Jude war.
Dann kammen sie für die Katholischen,
und ich sagte nichts,
weil ich Protestant war.
Dann kamen sie für mich,
und dann gab es niemanden
der für mich sprechen konnte.
First they came for the Communists,
and I didn't speak up,
because I wasn't a Communist.
Then the came for the Jews,
and I didn't speak up,
because I wasn't a Jew.
Then they came for the Catholics,
and I didn't speak up,
because I was Protestant.
Then they cam for me,
and by that time there was no one
left to speak for me.